Are vaccines safe? | The Vaccines Project, Episode 3

-The National Institutes
of Health, our nation’s
medical-research agency, started as a one-room
laboratory in 1887. The Hygienic Laboratory,
as it was called, was part of
the Marine Hospital Service. It was founded right
as germ theory was taking off. That’s the idea that
microbes cause disease. By the turn of the century, its mandate was
to investigate infectious and contagious diseases and matters pertaining
to the public health. But the lab gained
new importance in 1902. Until then, vaccines and other
biologically derived treatments weren’t regulated. At the time, the smallpox
vaccine that I spoke about in Episode 1 was being produced
on small farms, with manufacturers harvesting
cowpox pus from infected cattle. Similarly, the diphtheria
antitoxin that I mentioned in Episode 2 was made
from the blood of horses, without any
governmental oversight. Sadly, batches of smallpox
vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin
from different manufacturers became contaminated with tetanus
and 22 children died. So the government created
the Biologics Control Act and charged
the Hygienic Laboratory with regulating
the production of all biologically
derived medicines. The Biologics Control Act
was the first step towards making vaccines
the highly tested and monitored substances
they are. Today, the Food and Drug
Administration is responsible
for overseeing vaccines, but the NIH is still home to a multi-disciplinary
vaccine research lab. So it seems fitting
that we go there to learn about
how we know vaccines are safe. Anthony Fauci is the director of the National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
at the NIH. -So, safety is
absolutely paramount when you’re dealing
with vaccines, even more so than with drugs
that you’re giving someone who really needs the drug
because they’re sick. -Any new vaccine is first
tested in animals before it’s ever given
to people. Then it goes through multiple
rounds of human trials. -And you get a group of people
who are volunteers, who understand that this is
a first-in-human study. And you usually do it with a very small number
of individuals, measured in 10, 15, 20, 30,
sometimes more than that, but not hundreds
and hundreds of people. And what you do is that you
vaccinate the person and you watch both for immediate
and intermediate effects. -This first test
is just for safety. Then you do another safety test
with a few hundred people. But this time, you also see
if the vaccine is stimulating the immune system
the same way the germ would. -And then you get
to the largest study, which involves
thousands of people, to determine if it actually
does protect you. -The number of people
in that final test is based on the actual risk
of getting a disease. If it’s an uncommon disease,
you may need tens of thousands of people to tell
if it’s effective. If you’re in the middle
of an outbreak, you may only need a few
thousand, since so many people
will encounter the disease. -And that’s why vaccine testing
is so different, in so many ways, from testing whether a drug
works on someone who’s sick, because what you do is —
you have 50 people who are sick. You give them this drug. I mean, all of them are either
gonna respond or not gonna respond, whereas when you’re testing
a vaccine, you’re gonna be
vaccinating somebody, but they have to get exposed
to the virus in order to determine
if the vaccine protected them. And you certainly don’t want
to be getting somebody sick deliberately, unless you do it under very
special types of circumstances. -It’s only after these first
three rounds of studies that the Food
and Drug Administration will license the vaccine or allow it to be given
to the general population. If they notice any issues
with the data, they’ll send it back
for more testing. I think one thing that certain
people worry about — not just with vaccines, but about
any sort of drug they take — is about, like,
long-term effects. -Right. -And how do scientists
kind of gauge whether there is gonna be
a long-term effect from any drug,
but vaccines in particular? -Those are called
Phase IV studies. IV is sort of like
a post-approval, where you observe
cohorts of people. -That means you look
at large groups of people who have either gotten
or not gotten the vaccine and see if there’s
any difference in their health. For example, you might have
heard the rumor that vaccines cause autism. That claim is based on
a single paper that was later retracted
and included fraudulent data. Multiple Phase IV studies
performed by institutions around the world
have since looked into this, and none have found a link
between autism and the measles vaccine. Scientists looked at large
numbers of kids who either got
the measles vaccine or didn’t, and they saw no difference
in the rates of autism. In the U.
S. alone, we have four systems
in place to monitor vaccines after they’ve been licensed. Of course, no pharmaceutical we
take is completely without risk, even common drugs,
like ibuprofen or aspirin. But in order for a vaccine
to be approved, the risks need
to be very rare and far less harmful
than getting the disease the vaccine protects against. Take the measles vaccine. The most common side effects
are a mild rash, joint stiffness, fever, or
some pain at the injection site. But there are very rare cases
of more severe effects. According to the CDC,
1 in 3,000 to 4,000 children under 7 may have
a fever-related seizure, one that doesn’t cause
any long-term problems. Around 1 in 40,000 children
may temporarily develop a condition where they bleed
or bruise excessively. And in all the decades we’ve
been using the measles vaccine, there has been
one confirmed case of brain swelling caused
by the vaccine, in a patient who had
a weakened immune system. The thing to note is that all of
these more severe side effects are also caused
by getting measles itself. Now, compare those rare
side effects to the risk of actually getting measles. -Prior to the vaccination being
available throughout the world, there were about 2 million
to 3 million deaths per year from measles. -In the U.
S. alone, there were an estimated
3 million to 4 million cases per year. -There are about 1,000 cases
of encephalitis, which is brain swelling, and there are about
50,000 hospitalizations. 1 out of 10 children
who get measles will get an ear infection
that can lead to deafness. 1 out of 20 will get
a pneumonia, which can be very, very serious. And 1 out of 1,000 or so could actually
be serious enough to die. -A lot of friends of mine
who have had babies recently have balked
at the number of shots their babies have to get
at one time. What would you
tell those people? -Yeah, what people
don’t understand — that if you look
at the number of “antigens,” which are products of a
particular microbe in question, the number of antigens
you get exposed to when you get one of the many
common infections in childhood dwarf
the number of antigens in a single shot of a vaccine. -Huh.
-So just the natural exposure in the environment expose you
to so many more antigens than you would get if you get
the “recommended” vaccine menu that you’re recommending
for children. -The reason for getting so many
shots at one time is simple. Why bring your baby back to
the doctor more than necessary? If you forget or simply can’t
bring your child back, you leave them vulnerable
to infection. Now, I understand that,
as a parent, it’s easy to look around
and say, “Well, I’ve never seen measles
or diphtheria or polio. Why give my kid a shot
for a disease they’re unlikely to get?” Well, again, take measles. -We eliminated measles in the
United States in the year 2000, but, yet, since there’s measles
throughout the world — In 2017, I think 110,000 people
died of measles. People continually travel back
and forth — I mean, getting on a plane,
feeling okay, and then, all of a sudden, starting to feel sick
and then spreading it. So if society is not protected,
then you get the outbreak. But when you’re in society
and you say, “Wait a minute. There’s no measles. There’s no polio.
There’s no this. Why do I need
those vaccinations?” You need them because
it will come back. And we were so successful
with vaccinations that we’ve created a situation among some people
who look around and don’t see any incentive
to get vaccinated. -We have benefited
from two centuries of successful
vaccination campaigns, and the world is
a safer place for it. But, today, the World
Health Organization has deemed vaccine hesitancy
a threat to global health. We could eliminate some of
the worst diseases ever to plague humans —
not just from the U. S.
, but around the world. Will we do it?

15 thoughts on “Are vaccines safe? | The Vaccines Project, Episode 3

  1. TO THE WAPO EDITORS The Anti-Vax movement is a conspiracy theory. Conspiracy theories shouldn't be encouraged by repeating the main claim, such as you did in the title with questioning the safety of vaccines. The title should be like this: "Vaccines are safe, that's how they are tested for safety". This is scientific consensus in psychology and sociology. Repeating claims of conspiracy theories should be avoided as much as possible because it creates the effect of familiarity when a person hears or sees it often and thus is more likely to believe it.

  2. Did you know vaccines are not tested for carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, not tested for impairment of fertility? Because that's exactly what it does to you.

  3. There was no real control studies done. Generally non-vaxxed children are more healthy, recover faster, less or no ear infections.

  4. Hey parents, please vaccinate your children, there is nothing to worry about, only the fact that Bill Gates came out and said "we will use vaccines to lower the population". There is nothing to worry about.

  5. You argued perfectly why rest of the world should have more vaccination for herd immunity. In most cases of measles, the index case (first person with the disease) contracted the disease from a foreign country. Some of the cases are infants less than 1 year old when they have not received a first measles vaccination.

  6. I’m sorry but this video is misleading to its core. They don’t tell you about fast tracking vaccines. I can guarantee that bad reactions get swept under the rug and they come up with an excuse that it was diet related or something other than the vaccine so they can push it forward for approval. I find it funny this video only has 1200 views. Shows you how much we care about this BS

  7. I am getting sick and tired of this BS information that Vaccines are Safe. The bottom line is that they have not been tested properly and they can not ever make that claim until they do. Vaccines have NEVER been tested against a inert placebo( Standard in all drugs) No one has a clue what these vaccines are doing to our population. All these chronic illness (Autism, ADHD, Food Allergies, Epilepsy, Asthma, Mood Disorders, Diabetes, etc), they have no idea where these comes from, but somehow the vaccines are not the problem. They keep doing the same MMR study for Autism over and over again( Big problems with that study by the way) and claim ALL vaccines are completely safe. The Truth is Unvaccinated children are much healthier then Vaccinated. Something we all know, but They refuse to that study. Science is not always True Science. Science can be corrupt. When Scientist look the other way and refuse to do the studies and even manipulate studies. That is not science, that is corruption. The WHO knows that if the truth came out about vaccines, it would be a global catastrophe. There would be an uproar like we have never seen. The Vaccine Industry will do EVERYTHING they can to cover this up.

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