Breakthrough Junior Challenge 2018 | Rhinoviruses and the Common Cold

Everyone gets the sniffles
once in a while, but have you ever wondered, how do we get the common cold the common cold?
The common cold is caused by series of viruses known as rhinoviruses. Rhinoviruses are
divided into three main species, namely human rhinovirus A, B, and C. The virus has two
main modes of transportation: via respiratory droplets in the air and on
contaminated services and via direct contact.
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, which mean they need to enter
a host cell in order to reproduce. Rhinovirus A and B bind to the
Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 or ICAM-1 protein receptor on
respiratory epithelial cells to gain entry to the cell while rhinovirus C
enters through binding the Cadherin related family member 3 or CDHR3 protein
receptor. To proliferate, rhinoviruses undergo the lytic cycle. Rhinoviruses
contain a positive-sense single-stranded RNA which is used as mRNA in the cell.
The new mRNA synthesizes RNA dependent RNA polymerase which creates the
complementary minus strands of RNA. The minus strands are then used as templates to
create more plus strands. These create double-stranded RNA, which directs the
formation of new viral RNA. The resulting progeny viruses digest the cell walls
which result to cell lysis and then escaped infect other cells. Infections
occur rapidly, with symptoms appearing just two to three days after infection. The
common symptoms are sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion, sore throat, and cough
Patients may even also feel muscle sores, muscles weakness, headaches, fatigue, and in some
cases, fever. With so many people around the world
getting colds you’d probably think we’d have a cure by now.
Well we don’t. As of now, most of the medicines the doctor prescribes you are
to alleviate the symptoms of the cold. Decongestants and nasal sprays
relieve the swelling of your sinuses Expectorants thin the mucus in your airways,
resulting to your phlegm being removable upon coughing. Cough syrups and throat
lozenges help soothe your throat. Pain relievers like ibuprofen can reduce
muscle pains and lower fevers. Never use antibiotics as they do not help
whatsoever against a viral infection. You’re probably thinking: it’s a virus, so
why can’t just become vaccine? Well the thing is, there are around 160 types of
rhinoviruses and so many serotypes or distinct variations between them that we’ve
so far found little to no cross protection between them. The common cold isn’t
exactly the most life-threatening viral infection, but you should go see a doctor
if symptoms persist after two weeks. As of now, the best way to cure a common cold
is to get plenty of rest and stay hydrated

1 thought on “Breakthrough Junior Challenge 2018 | Rhinoviruses and the Common Cold

  1. Hi Jhon, I really enjoyed watching your video. I really learned a lot and I loved the humor you added in, while still making it educational. If you get a chance, I would really appreciate it if you would watch my entry, at would really love some feedback or constructive criticism, since this is my first time participating in this challenge. Thanks so much and great job on the video!

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