H1N1 (Swine Flu) – Closed Captioned


Dr. Bresee: Hello. I’m Dr. Joe Bresee
with the CDC Influenza Division. I’m here to speak with you today
about swine flu. First I’ll begin by explaining
what swine flu is. Swine flu is
a respiratory disease of pigs caused
by type A influenza viruses. Outbreaks of swine flu
happen regularly in pigs. People do not normally get
swine flu, but human infections
can and do occur. Most commonly,
human cases of swine flu happen in people
who are around pigs, but it’s possible
for swine-flu viruses to spread from person to person,
also. The symptoms of swine flu
in people are similar to the symptoms
of regular human flu and include fever, cough,
sore throat, body aches, headache,
chills, and fatigue. Some people have reported
diarrhea and vomiting associated with swine flu
as well. In the past, severe illnesses such as pneumonia
and respiratory failure, as well as deaths,
have been reported with swine-influenza infection
in people as well. Like seasonal flu, swine flu
may cause a worsening of underlying
chronic medical conditions. I’ll now discuss the severity of
swine-flu illnesses in people. Similar to seasonal flu,
swine flu in humans can vary in severity
from mild to severe. Between 2005 until January 2009, 12 human cases of swine flu were detected
in the United States with no deaths occurring. However, swine-flu infection
can be serious. In September 1988, a previously healthy
32-year-old pregnant woman in Wisconsin
was hospitalized for pneumonia after being infected
with swine flu, and she died eight days later. A swine-flu outbreak
in Fort Dix, New Jersey, occurred in 1976
that caused more than 200 cases with severe illness
in several people and one death. Spread of swine flu
can occur in two ways. The first way is through contact
with infected pigs or environments contaminated
with swine-flu viruses. The second way
is through contact with a person infected
with the swine-flu virus. Human-to-human spread of swine
flu has also been documented and is thought to occur
in the same way as seasonal flu. Influenza is thought to be
spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing
of infected people. Next I would like to tell you
about medicines that can be used to treat
swine flu. CDC recommends the use
of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and,
alternatively, the prevention of infection
with these swine-flu viruses. Antiviral drugs
are prescription medicines such as pills, liquids,
or an inhaler that fights against the flu
by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs
can make your illness milder and can make you feel better
faster. They may also prevent
serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started
soon after getting sick, specifically within two days
of symptoms. People
with swine-influenza infection should be considered
potentially contagious as long as they are symptomatic and possibly
for up to seven days following the illness onset. Children,
especially younger children, might potentially be contagious
for longer periods. There is no vaccine
available right now to protect against swine flu. However, there are everyday
actions that people can take to help prevent the spread
of germs that cause respiratory illnesses
like influenza. Take these everyday steps
to protect your health. Cover your nose and mouth with a
tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash
after you use it. Wash your hands often
with soap and water, especially after you cough
or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners
are also effective. Try to avoid close contact
with sick people. If you get sick with influenza, CDC recommends that you
stay home from work or school and limit contact with others
to keep from infecting them. Avoid touching
your eyes, nose, or mouth because germs can spread
that way. Now I will move on to discuss
what you should do if you get sick. If you live in an area where swine-flu infections
have been reported and if you become ill
with influenza-like symptoms, including fever, body aches,
runny nose, sore throat, nausea,
or vomiting or diarrhea, you may want to contact
your healthcare provider, particularly if you’re worried
about your symptoms. Your healthcare provider will determine whether influenza
testing or treatment is needed. If you’re sick,
you should stay home and avoid contact with other
people as much as possible to keep from spreading
your illness to others. If you become ill and experience any
of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care. In children,
emergency warning signs that need
urgent medical attention include fast breathing
or trouble breathing, bluish skin color, not drinking enough fluids, not waking up
or not interacting, being so irritable that the child
does not want to be held, fever with a rash, or flu-like symptoms
that improve but then return
with a fever and worse cough. In adults,
emergency warning signs that need
urgent medical attention include difficulty breathing
or shortness of breath, pain or pressure
in the chest or abdomen, sudden dizziness, confusion, and severe
or persistent vomiting. People don’t need to worry
about eating or preparing pork. Swine-influenza viruses
are not spread by food. Eating properly handled and
cooked pork products is safe.

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